The objective of every continuous improvement exercise is to strive for 100% performance. Attaining perfection is no longer a pipedream. Quality gurus and practitioners are continuously raising the bar and showing the world that, zero defect product and flawless service is absolutely attainable.
AKSA & ESL are also continuously striving for excellence and subsequently 100% performance.
اُٹھ باندھ کمر کیا ڈرتا ہے
پِھر دیکھ خدا کیا کرتا ہے
1. POKA YOKE SYSTEM – داگھالتی گنجائش نشتئہ
Years ago when we used to send letters by post, we often made mistakes. Letter of Zaid would be delivered to Bakar and letter of Joe would go to Blow. It was because of the fact that mail sender would inadvertently put the letter addressed to Zaid in envelope bearing address of Bakar. A simple solution to this problem was devised by some intelligent person. He made a window in the envelope and folded the letter inside in such a way that the address lines on the letter would coincide with the window. Since writing of addresses twice was done away with, the problem of letter addressed to one reaching the other also ceased to exist.
This is a fail-safe method of doing things and is called POKA YOKE system.
In power generation also, engineers use poka yoke systems. What is an ATS (auto transfer switch)? It is a poka yoke device for fail safe connection to either grid power or generator power. Similarly safeties on generators are also fail safe devices unless made dysfunctional by some careless operator.
Japanese engineers regularly use poka yoke systems. They would do thousands of service jobs, hundreds of complete machine overhauls, etc., without making a single mistake. Repeat work or rework is a non-existent word in their dictionary.
Management of ESL believes that its engineers can also do the same in the daily work they perform. It just takes some smart thinking. One small example is shown below:
Last but not the least, the assembly of the generators is also a “fail safe” (Poka Yoke) process. Nothing can go wrong whether it is assembled in an OEM plant or AKSA factories world wide. Even offer an overhaul which is performed locally by distributors’ engineers & technicians, assembly of engine, alternator on a common base frame is a “fail safe”, “unmistakable” process and a “day-in & day-out” practice. This takes care of the biggest allegation by AKSA competitors who often allege that “AKSA is a packager” and hence not as reliable, in terms of quality as an “OEM product” We reiterate :
“AKSA manufacturing is a classical example of a POKA YOKE process”
2. PERFECTING THE WHEEL! – حَسِین تکمیل
Aksa, our Turkish manufacturer buys Cummins and Perkins engines from respective mother factories in very large numbers. Then it adds value in its own factories using state of the art, customer friendly controllers; set mounted or remote cooling system usually larger in size, with higher air flow rate than contemporary brands; solid steel skids; base fuel tanks; state of the art sound proof canopies; ATS devices; top of the line paralleling, synchronizing and load sharing panels; real time power factor correction (RTPFC) equipment; neutral grounding resistance (NGR) kits and complete customized project engineering, etc.
Then it supplies this equipment all over the world with exactly same warranties as available to any other Cummins or Perkins customer. These warranties are administered by its distributors, though customers can take recourse to local Cummins or Perkins distributors as well.
Our Turkish manufacturer does not reinvent the wheel. Instead it perfects it through its design, engineering and manufacturing processes and supply change management. Bigger the project, better it gets.
3. BIRDS OF A FEATHER FLOCK TOGETHER
Perfecting the wheel also requires high level of customization.
Aksa generators come with world’s best engines, alternators and Controllers. Radiators are produced by its sister company. Assembly is performed in state-of-the-art factories. Testing facilities are world class. Auto Transfer Switches and synchronization panels are customized as per customers’ unique requirements in-house. Canopies are the icing on the cake. In short, best ingredients are put together to produce an Aksa generator.
Aksa does not make any compromise on quality. Only best quality components can find a place on our generators. These are then supplied to the customers who only go for the best.
Few AKSA customers
|Bahria Town||Multiple sets of 1 MW, 800 kVA, 700 kVA & 550 kVA (total over 11.5 MW)|
|Telenor Pakistan||More than 1500 sets of 14 kVA to 300 kVA + Training for almost 400 engineers / technicians|
|Martin Dow||1 MW Cummins KTA50G3 engine|
|Coca Cola Beverages||15 x 2250 kVA sets with Cummins QSK60 G4 engines + several others + Synchronization with Mains|
|Allied Bank||Over 1000 sets of various ratings and maintenance contract of 800 sites|
|Meezan Bank||Over 250 sets of various rating starting from 30 kVA|
|Summit Bank||Over 100 sets of various rating starting from 30 kVA up to 1000 kVA|
|Bank Islami||Over 150 sets of various capacities|
|British American Tobacco||4 x 1500 kVA sets with Cummins KTA50G8 engines + several others + Synchronization with Mains|
|Pakistan International Container Terminal||(2) x 1.2 MW sets with Cummins engines @ 11.000 V + synchronization with others|
|Qasim International Container Terminal (DP World)||20 x 400 kVA sets + several others up to 500 kVA|
|Atlas Honda Group||4 x 2250; 4 x 1675; 4 x 1100 kVA sets@ 11 KV with RTPFC + various others (Total 240 units)|
|Shaukat Khanum Hospital||2 x 550 kVA, 4 x 1410 kVA + several others.|
|Mobilink (PMCL)||1 x 1675; 1 x 1100 kVA, 1 x 500 kVA, 2 x 400 kVA + several others.|
|Shell Pakistan||Generator maintenance services to Shell’s 800 retail outlets countrywide (till change of strategy)|
|ORIX Leasing Pakistan||Supply of various sets (35) for rental fleet|
|Siemens Pakistan||1000 kVA to 2250 kVA for their projects (several)|
|Habib Bank||End to end maintenance contract of 150 sites|
|ATS Synthetic||3 x 2250 kVA sets @ 11,000 volts + synchronization with existing gas generators|
|Askari Bank Limited||Over 75 sets of various ratings.|
4. AKSA PORTABLES – بڑے میاں تو بڑے میاں ، چھوٹے میاں سبحان اللہ
Aksa generators are known for their robust, rugged and resilient construction. They perform smilingly in hot, harsh, humid weather conditions. When the going gets tough, they really get going.
Same is true for Aksa’s portable sets and small gas generators- . They are as robust and rugged as their larger diesel version and seem to have been made exactly for our conditions in the context of extensive load shedding. The small gas sets seem to have been “invented for a lifetime”.
Don’t suffer at the hands of never-ending load shedding. Buy Aksa generators from ESL for your industrial and commercial applications. At the same, you can buy our Aksa portables and gas generators up to 80 kVA for your domestic use and rid yourself from sleepless nights and restless days. It is the best gift you can give to your loved ones.
5. A DARK HORSE – چھپا رُستم
Aksa generators are a true workhorse. It is a Turkish brand and enjoys almost 65 ~ 70% market share in Turkish market. Be it a hospital, a military installation, or any other mission critical application or highly demanding industrial usage or a construction site in hot, humid, dusty, sandy terrain, Aksa is the brand of choice.
The name Aksa is synonymous with quality, precision and latest technology.
At the same time, the sets are rugged, robust, and resilient and of rental grade construction with components of best quality fetched from all over the world or home grown.
Be rest assured when you buy Aksa, you buy peace of mind. You buy something which will not let you down rain or shine, hell or high water. Simply because it is a Turkish workhorse or our desi , which goes on toiling day-in-and-day-out with minimum or no supervision.
6. ICING ON THE CAKE – سونے پہ سھاگہ
Our canopies are an icing on the cake. They have the following important features:
- Skid mounted; made to match generator life.
- 2 mm thick steel sheet.
- Bolted type construction instead of welded type.
- Electrostatically painted for life with polyester powder paint.
- Thermally insulated silencer instead of asbestos clad.
- Emergency stop push button.
- Rental grade construction to allow rough handling on regular basis.
7. WHERE THERE IS A WILL THERE IS A WAY – جہاں چاہ ، وہاں راہ
Our Turkish brand Aksa has succeeded through product quality, supply chain management, service excellence, and customer satisfaction. It believes that what can be conceived, can be achieved. “You can if you think you can”. It also believes “where there is a vision, there is a way”. As a result of its approach, it is already a way of life in Turkey and will soon be in Pakistan too.
8. JOURNEY OF THOUSAND MILES BEGINS WITH THE FIRST STEP
Perfecting the wheel also requires attention to all details.
Proper installation and commissioning is the first step and the most important one for reliable operation and longevity of a power plant.
Extra care should be taken and the following manual should be consulted for guidance. Urdu version of this book is also just round the corner. This is also covered in our “Meet & Treat” sessions.
9. HORSES FOR COURSES – جیسا کھیل ویسا کھلاڑی
Perfecting the wheel requires proper selection of generators in accordance with the intended application.
Generator is a workhorse. Every application requires a different rating of generator. Let’s see what these rating are (more coverage is available in our “Meet & Treat” sessions):
a. Standby: There is no overload capability for the standby rating; use of the generator set above the standby rating is prohibited. Typical operating time is 250 – 400 hours per year or less. Use the prime power rating for applications exceeding 400 hours of varying load operation.
b. Prime power rating applies to applications where utility power is unavailable or unreliable. At varying load, the number of generator set operating hours at prime rating is unlimited. The average power output shall not exceed 70-80% of the prime power rating. Loads of less than 30% shall be counted as 30%. A 10% overload power is available for a period of one hour in every 12 hours. This overload cannot exceed 400 hours per year (A view of Aksa factory in USA producing prime power gensets)
c. Base load rating (also referred to as continuous rating) applies to generator sets operating as utility-type power sources where there are non-varying load factors and/or constant dedicated loads. Power is continuously supplied to a constant or non-varying load up to 100% of the base load rating for an unlimited number of hours. No overload capability is available at this rating; therefore, using above base load rating is prohibited.
10. CARRYING COAL TO THE NEWCASTLE – الٹے بانس بریلی کو
Instead of drawing electricity from the main grid, peak shaving is the other way round. It uses generators and paralleling equipment to monitor the electric grid, start up generators as necessary, synchronize frequencies and supply to the grid at times of peak demand.
The utility company, instead of increasing its capacity, encourages factory owners to sell electricity, over and above their own requirement, to the main grid. By so doing the gap between demand and supply is bridged and both parties to the arrangement benefit.
11. PUTTING CART BEFORE THE HORSE – الٹی گنگا بہانا
Another very important aspect of perfecting the wheel is the proper gensizing exercise.
Selecting a generator without a proper sizing exercise is like putting cart before the horse.
Some important consideration which must be borne in mind before sizing and selecting a generator are as follows. However, recourse should be taken to sizing softwares available from genset manufacturers and / or its distributors.
- Maximum allowable voltage dip:
Genset size is inversely proportional to maximum allowable voltage dip (subject to a maximum of 40%). Lower the allowable voltage dip, bigger the generator size. Voltage dips of more than 40% can lead to relay and contactor problems.
- Maximum allowable frequency dip:
Generator size is inversely proportional to maximum allowable frequency dip (subject to a maximum of 10%). Lower the allowable frequency dip, bigger the generator size. For frequency sensitive loads such as UPS, the allowable frequency dip has to be set lower (preferably in consultation with UPS supplier)
Lean Burn Gas generators always have a higher displacement (liters) than a similar capacity diesel generator. For example, a 60 liter diesel engine may deliver a 1500 kilowatt continuous power whereas a 60 liter gas engine may deliver only 1000 kilowatt continuous Power. For further explanation please consult ESL Customer Care.
Generator size is directly proportional to altitude. Higher the altitude over 500 meters above sea level, bigger the generator size.
Generator size is directly proportional to the ambient temperature. Higher the ambient temperature above 25 degree C, bigger the generator size.
- Number of generating sets:
If the total load is greater than 1000 kilowatt, it is better to have multiple sets for greater reliability and operational flexibility. If the load is equal to or less than 300 kilowatt it is not cost effective to parallel.
- Minimum load:
The genset should not be loaded less than 30% of its capacity. It can lead to engine damage and reduced reliability of the generating set. Load less than 10% should never be allowed for extended period of time.
- Maximum alternator temperature rise:
Alternator size (hence generator size) is inversely proportional to maximum alternator temperature rise above an ambient of 40 degree C. Lower the allowable temperature rise, bigger the alternator required. Thus for a 105 degree allowable temperature rise you would choose a bigger alternator (hence generator) than you would choose for a 125 degree allowable temperature rise above 40 degree C ambient.
- Duty Cycle:
As the duty cycle varies from standby to prime to continuous, generators tend to increase in size. A continuously running base load generator is bigger than a similar rating prime power set which in tum is bigger than a similarly rated standby generator.
- Linear vs nonlinear loads:
A generator for nonlinear loads tends to be bigger than the one for linear loads.
- Individual loads running requirements:
RKVA, RKW, RPF, R Amperes etc – for further explanation, consult ESL Customer Care.
- Individual loads starting requirements:
SKVA, SKW, SPF etc – for further explanation, consult ESL Customer Care.
- Transient Step loads
Combined loads in each step (Starting load of new equipment in this step + Running load of equipment started in all previous steps) – Maximum step kilowatt and kva, cumulative step kilowatt and kva; and effective step kilowatt and kva.
- Transient Surge loads
Sudden increase by cyclical loads or surges produced by welding loads or medical imaging equipment – Maximum surge kilowatt and kva, cumulative surge kilowatt and kva; and effective surge kilowatt and kva.
- Types of loads:
a) Lighting loads – though some of them are nonlinear, are treated as linear because of their small values.
b) Air conditioning load -2hp per ton of air-conditioning
c) Battery charger is a silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR). It is a nonlinear load requiring large alternator
d) Medical imaging equipment – it has a maximum allowable voltage dip of 10%.
The above is only a synopsis of sizing considerations. For more details, contact genset manufacturers.
12. BAD NAME IS WORSE THAN BAD DEEDS – بد اچھا بدنام
Aksa is one of the largest OEMs of G-drive engines and prefers Cummins more than any other brand. It exports its products in very large numbers to USA, UK, European Union countries, Middle East and Africa for very sensitive, high quality, prestigious installations.
But in Pakistan, when Aksa first arrived it faced a very unique issue. It was considered as a less superior product despite using Cummins engines and Stamford alternators. The reason was simple. Many customers turned it down because of it being a Turkish brand. It participated in each business with a huge disadvantage. That was why ESL had to work very hard and burn midnight oil to sell Aksa generators in Pakistan market. Many of the 6000 plus sets supplied by ESL in its earlier years, were a tale of trial and tribulation, just because of the brand origin- . In those days, our Turkish supplier would often cry & complain:
13. THE TIDE WILL TURN ONE DAY –
In our initial days, on many occasions, ESL would lose business at the last stages because of Turkish brand. Most of the time we used to be only a handshaking distance away from success. Our example was best portrayed by the following:
In those early days, we used to be so near, yet so far many a times. We lost business after business. Yet we did not lose our heart. We kept trying in the hope that the tide would turn one day, which did. The key was persistence, patience, perseverance, performance exceeding promises and above all prayers. Perfecting the wheel requires all these ingredients in large quantities.
Now our customers acknowledge that Aksa is a top brand not only in Turkey where it enjoys more than 65% market share and reigns supreme in military installations, airports, hotels, automotive industry, textile, construction, ship building, steel, cement, food factories, rental business etc., It is fast developing as a top brand in Pakistan too. Aksa and ESL are determined to make Pakistan its second home.
14. TREASURE HUNT – خزانے کی تلاش
A farmer wanted his lazy sons to work. But they would always refuse. Father, however, knew his sons very well. He told them that there was a treasure hidden under the field. Sons, who were greedy, worked hard on the field but could not find anything. However, after a few days, they saw a bumper crop which made the family very rich. Farmer told his sons that that was the treasure he wanted them to find. Sons learnt the lesson forever that one should do the business he knows best.
Perfecting the wheel requires that you should concentrate on doing what you can do best. You must not spread yourself too thinly. It is better to be a king of one trade than being a jack of all.
ESL knows its business well. It is well versed in selling, supplying, repairing, overhauling and servicing Cummins & Perkins engines. This is its UNIQUE SELLING PROPOSITION (USP). It has been doing these jobs for a longer period of time than anybody else in Pakistan. It is also well versed in paralleling, synchronizing and load sharing involving sets of any make, model, manufacturer, mix of fuel and MAINS.
ESL has all the necessary tools, parts, softwares, dongles, trainings, workshop and calibration facilities to do it. Its engineers know their business best.
Irrespective of where they buy their Cummins and Perkins generators from, customers turn to ESL for good quality service at reasonable prices. Even if the customers don’t engage ESL for their jobs, our engineers help customers negotiate better prices from the competitors who otherwise may have a field day with exorbitantly high prices charged for their parts and services.
So why take recourse to hit and run breed of vendors or those who enjoy proprietary rights and take you to cleaners in terms of cost of doing overhaul service? ESL can deliver you a better value for money with similar or extended warranties.
15. TO ERR IS HUMAN –
Perfecting the wheel requires ruthless practice. Practice, indeed, makes a man perfect.
He used to make mistakes. But he learned from them. He knew that making mistakes is human. But repeating them is a cardinal sin.
He was one of the world’s best cricket bowlers. Every ball that he bowled used to be on or about the three stumps. Most of the wickets that he would take were either “clean bowled” or adjudged “LBW”. The accuracy of his bowling was so great that it could qualify for six sigma definition. That is if he bowled a million balls, only three to four balls would be outside the limits of accuracy. This was achieved by intense training, relentless practice, and most importantly by applying the science of quality management. He understood what was the given “specification width”, upon which he had no control. He also knew the concept of “process width” upon which he had full control. So he perfected what was in his own hands and achieved six sigma type accuracy. Guess who he was!!
My friend travels for business 30 to 40 times every year. This he has been doing for last twenty years. There has not been a single time that his luggage has not reached the destination. Nor has there been a single time that he faced a problem on account of air ticketing, for example, he asked for a ticket for North Carolina and was issued ticket for South Carolina, etc. This level of accuracy is possible because of six sigma processes. A six sigma process is so accurate that the chance of an error is merely 3 to 4 in a million.
If we achieve a similar level of accuracy in our services, we will commit only 3 to 4 mistakes in a million services. This is not a pipedream. Japanese have reached this level long ago. In fact most of the first world is achieving this level of accuracy consistently. It is unheard of in a hospital that a vaccine meant for Zaid is administered to Bakar or a meal ordered by one in a restaurant has been served at someone else’s table. These are all because of six sigma processes.
16. PERFECTING THE WHEEL – A JOURNEY FROM “GOOD TO GREAT” –
ESL proudly presents 5S approach to going from good to greatness in personal selling career. You may contact ESL for presentation on this subject and also on “5s Approach to Safety”.
Is a five S approach applicable to generator MAINTENANCE? Recently ESL demonstrated 5S approach to the engineers of a large telecom operator. First of all, engineers all over the country were asked to list down problems they faced on their BTS sites. Feedback from almost two hundred engineers revealed that main problems on BTS generators are 60 to 70.
After the accumulation of data, sorting of the problems revealed that the most significant problems are approximately twenty.
These twenty problems were then arranged in the order of their frequency of occurrence and disruption caused by them. The principle of Pareto was used for this purpose. This analysis revealed that only six problems cause 80% of the total issues.
After the Pareto analysis, list of actions was generated which could lead to resolution of these problems. The final point of all such exercises is development of standards and systems to make sure that preventive jobs are done in a regular, consistent manner and that progress is reviewed periodically to evaluate whether the desired performance is being achieved or not. This is depicted by the picture below.
17. ONE FLOWER MAKES NO GARLAND –
Perfecting the wheel requires team work.
Joe Gerard, world’s best salesman for many years, used to attribute his success to teamwork. Until and unless the whole organization works together like a well-oiled machine, customer satisfaction will remain a pipedream. His main ally in all sales was his Service department. Remember TOGETHER EACH ACHIEVES MORE. So please team up.
Teamwork is nothing but the story of two persons, one without eyes and the other without legs. They got caught in a jungle fire and were destined to die. But then they thought of a plan and saved themselves. Our survival and success also depends upon complementing strengths of each other through teamwork.
18. A MAN OF WORDS AND NOT OF DEEDS IS LIKE A GARDEN FULL OF WEEDS –
Recipe for success is that we do what we say and say what we do. We must make promises with our customers very carefully. Once we have made those promises, we must fulfill them at any cost. This is an important ingredient for perfecting the wheel.
Customers easily decipher when we deviate from our words. We not only fall from grace in customers’ eyes, still worse, we fall from grace in our own eyes. Remember .Winners don’t cheat. Champions don’t lie.
19. I STOUT, YOU STOUT WHO WILL CARRY THE DIRT OUT
Perfecting the wheel requires proper organizing.
Just as too many cooks spoil the broth, too many chiefs will also spoil the show. Too many chiefs and few Indians is a sure recipe for disaster and reason for business failure:
THOSE WHO SHOOT FOR THE MOON –
Perfecting the wheel requires leadership. The difference between a good organization and a great one is good leadership. A leader is heads and shoulders above every manager. He shoots for the moon and transforms any company from a bunch of ordinary people into an extraordinary organization. His biggest contribution is that he produces more leaders like himself.
21. WHAT YOU SOW, SO SHALL YOU REAP –
Confucius said: If you want to prosper for a year, grow rice. If you want to prosper for a decade, plant trees. If you want to prosper for a century, train people.
Perfect the wheel through continuous improvement. ESL firmly believes in it. It has designed training books for this purpose which not only provide training to its employees but to all power generation professionals. Please contact ESL for copies of these training books.
22. OUT OF SIGHT OUT OF MIND –
Perfecting the wheel requires staying in touch and fully understanding the needs of the customers. Easiest way to lose customers is getting out of touch. Show them “you care” through caring services, friendliness, problem solving, affection, attention and intimacy. Keep adding value to their personal and professional life even in their lean business periods. There are competitors trying to win them over from you. Don’t surrender them to others. Read ESL Sales Policy for details.
23. ALL IS GRIST THAT COMES TO THE MILL –
Training and development is one of the best tools for perfecting the wheel. It transforms clay into gold and ordinary engineers into extraordinary performers. They will ultimately not only meet but exceed customers’ expectations.
24. A FIGURE AMONG CIPHERS –
Those who don’t strive for excellence in life, may at best become a figure among ciphers. In this world of cut throat competition, one-eyed have no place. Strive to perfect the wheel and achieve excellence through continuous improvement. Shun mediocrity. Don’t just be a figure among ciphers. Customers love to do business with extraordinary people only, who make no mistake and do every job right, first time, every time. There is no place for ordinary souls.
25. ROCKET SCIENCE –
Sales is not a rocket science.
SALES stands for:
S → Sincere & Selfless efforts for your customers;
A → Attitude & Aptitude;
L → Lots of customers’ visits, meetings & presentations;
E → Efficiency & Effectiveness;
S → Solicit (orders from customers) & Supplicate (pray for success after all else is done).
For details contact ESL.
Selling is the most commonsensical profession on God’s earth. It requires above listed attributes to perfect the wheel. Everybody from cradle to grave sells, be him a professional salesman or not. It is not a rocket science or something “un-doable”. The foundation stone of selling is to keep meeting with the customers, rain or shine, day-in-and-day-out. Do you know less than 10% salesmen make more than 90% sales? Are you one of them?
26. A BIRD IN HAND IS WORTH TWO IN THE BUSH –
Look after your existing customers very, very well. Unless your existing customers are delighted, your future customers wouldn’t be too. Don’t be greedy for more customers unless you are doing justice with the present ones.
27. THE GRASS IS ALWAYS GREENER ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE FENCE –
The grass is not greener on the other side. It is greener on the side where you water it. Invest time and money on your employees and suppliers if you want them to do a good job for your customers.
28. MIGHTY OAKS FROM LITTLE ACORNS GROW –
To delight your customers, sow the seeds of continuous improvements. Train yourself every day. Learn something new constantly. It will all add up together to huge proportions one day. Remember: great things come from small beginnings.
It is only through continuous education, experience, exposure and environment plus goal setting for immediate, intermediate and long term basis that boys are transformed into men and start performing wonders.
29. HIRE MONKEYS, END UP WITH PEANUTS –
If you hire monkeys only, you will end up working for peanuts. If you don’t invest in “continuous improvement”, you will end up investing in “rework”.
Remember lowly paid and least trained worker is the costliest worker. Cheapest is the dearest.
30. METHOD TO MADNESS –
There is a method to the madness of the boy in picture. We all know from our childhood days that he did not tumble without a reason.
Similarly, good companies do not spend money extensively on training and development without a reason. They do so to attract and retain the best people available in the market. They also understand it fully well that it will pay them back in terms of more business opportunities and result in bumper crop soon.
31. GENIUS IS 1% INSPIRATION & 99% PERSPIRATION –
The secret of success as revealed by Socrates to his disciple: “Unless you crave for success just like a drowning man craves for air, you will not be successful.”
32. GARBAGE IN, GARBAGE OUT –
To ensure high quality of customers’ service and win their hearts and minds forever, don’t compromise on men, machine, material, methods, etc. Remember: GIGO. To learn more about application of these concepts to service business, contact ESL.